In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. Yale University Press, The date of death or disappearance is given in parentheses.
Legacy of Medical Experimentation and Forced Sterilization Several potential reasons for race-based differences in attitudes toward contraception, and to some extent pregnancy, focus not on family background or socioeconomic explanations, but instead on race itself. There is also a possibility that affairs between white women and slaves were simply not noticed or recorded as often as they occurred. One decision pathway, similar to the Theory of Reasoned Action Ajzen and Fishbein , is analytic and responsive to general attitudes and desires, which in turn influence individual expectations, intentions, and behavior. Cited instances[ edit ] The following missing person cases have been cited as instances of missing white woman syndrome; media commentators on the phenomenon regard them as garnering a disproportionate level of media coverage relative to contemporary cases involving missing girls or women of non-white ethnicities, and missing males of all ethnicities. Other sources of survey data on the transition to adulthood, such as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health AddHealth , include many fewer measures of attitudes. Religious doctrine also tends to be negative toward contraception, but evidence is mixed about whether religiosity affects contraceptive use among those young people who have sex Manlove et al. The miracle of this process is that so little knowledge exists that we get to create and share our own experience to make new knowledge with our community. However, just as slave-owning white women often took out their frustrations on slaves through excessive cruelty and violence, they probably also used sex as a means of domination and control in a society in which they were relatively powerless. Economic Opportunity and Attainment Because of higher rates of poverty, lower-quality early education, greater labor market discrimination, and residence in more-disadvantaged neighborhoods, black women tend to have less education, lower employment rates, and fewer opportunities for economic attainment than white women Avery and Rendall ; Conley ; Isaacs ; Oliver and Shapiro ; Orr ; Proctor and Dalaker However, although birth control and abortion methods in the nineteenth-century were not as widely used, safe, or accessible as they are today, they existed. Black young people are at a much higher risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection STI than their white peers CDC , partly because of higher rates of concurrency and more assortative mating than other racial groups Hamilton and Morris ; Laumann and Youm As such, they were valued for their homemaking abilities, maternal instinct, and, perhaps above all else, their virtue. We expect these beliefs and experiences to translate to lower rates of contraceptive use among black women and also translate to particular avoidance of methods that require interaction with a health care provider e. Black young people [are more likely to have had sexual intercourse, to have initiated sexual activity at earlier ages, and to have had multiple sexual partners in their lifetime than white young people Cavazos-Rehg et al. Although overall pregnancy rates are higher at older ages, unintended pregnancies—which have been targeted for reduction by Healthy People goals in , , and 1 —peak at these ages Finer and Zolna In addition, black women did not differ from white women in their number of discontinuations or different methods used and had fewer contraceptive method switches. Further, independent of pregnancy desires, attitudes toward sex and contraception, and other attitudes related to pregnancy, may influence the risk of pregnancy more directly through women's sexual and contraceptive behavior. A narrative of the life and adventures of Charles Ball, a black man, who lived forty years in Maryland, South Carolina and Georgia, as a slave In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. It is important to note that cases of rape would probably not have been seen as such by the wives of sexually abusive slave masters, who bought into the idea of the hypersexualized, unrapeable black Jezebel. For instance, respondents are at risk of using contraception to prevent pregnancy only if they are having sex. Religious opposition toward sex and contraception may explain why Black women have less knowledge about contraception and are less likely to use contraception Frost and Darroch ; Frost et al. It is possible the sexual exploitation of slaves by women who had little power in relation to white men was a source of enjoyment that created a feeling of power. For example, black women are members of both a marginalized racial group and a marginalized gender group. Edin and Kefalas described poor young women who perceive potential stability in a path of early sex, lack of contraception, and early parenthood. For example, researchers have posited that poor women have more serious relationships at younger ages, which contributes to their higher risk of early pregnancy Edin and Kefalas , and that black women discontinue their contraceptive methods more frequently than other women Hammerslough ; Trussell and Vaughan
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