Hence, the Migration played an important role in the formation and expansion of African-American neighborhoods in these cities. Many of these communities are found in the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. Urban renewal was extremely controversial because it involved the destruction of businesses, the relocation of people, and the use of eminent domain to reclaim private property for city-initiated development projects. It was also associated with an increase in neighborhood racial segregation.
This significant event and the subsequent struggle of African-American migrants to adapt to Northern cities was the subject of Jacob Lawrence's Migration Series. The process began an intense phase in the late s and continues in some places to the present day. While the Great Migration helped educated African Americans obtain jobs, while enabling a measure of class mobility, the migrants encountered significant forms of discrimination in the North through a large migration during such a short of period of time. The riots that swept cities across the country from to damaged or destroyed additional areas of major cities, for instance Detroit 's 12th Street, the U and H street corridors in Washington, DC, and Harlem in New York City during the Harlem Riots. This enabled middle-class African Americans to move to better housing, in some cases in the suburbs, and to desegregated residential neighborhoods. There are various races and ethnic groups in this huge expanse such as Whites, Latinos, Asians, and Arabs, but it is predominantly Black. The justifications often used for urban renewal include the "renewal" of residential slums and blighted commercial and industrial areas. Churches in Harlem have undertaken real estate ventures and renovated burnt-out and abandoned brownstones to create new housing for residents. Although people of different races may work together, they are still unlikely to live in largely integrated neighborhoods. Ethnic groups created territories which they defended against change. Many of these communities are found in the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. In response, some white groups resorted to the restrictive covenant , a formal deed restriction binding property owners in a given neighborhood not to sell to blacks. In some areas, however, real estate agents continued to steer African Americans to particular areas although that was now illegal. This has helped produce majority black populations with significant middle to upper class black neighborhoods. But rarely have they been so isolated and impoverished as the African-American districts found in U. It has had a major impact on the urban landscape. But these issues may be more due to economics than race since middle class blacks with middle-class neighborhoods tend to live in better neighborhoods and children attend better schools than those from lower income neighborhoods or schools districts. For many African Americans, the ghetto was "home", a place representing authentic blackness and a feeling, passion, or emotion derived from the rising above the struggle and suffering of being black in America. In the second half of the 20th century, renewal often resulted in the creation of urban sprawl and vast areas of cities being demolished and replaced by freeways and expressways , housing projects , and vacant lots, some of which still remain vacant at the beginning of the 21st century. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the midth century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods. Such communities have also developed in many of the larger cities of the United States. Not until did the Supreme Court strike down restrictive covenants. Hence, the Migration played an important role in the formation and expansion of African-American neighborhoods in these cities. The migrants also discovered that the open discrimination of the South was only more subtly manifested in the North. Even some of those that traditionally have high poverty and unemployment have also had neighborhoods with middle class and affluent blacks. In the New Great Migration , black college graduates are returning to the South for jobs, where they generally settle in middle-class , suburban areas.
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